Django is renowned for being a powerful web framework with a relatively shallow learning curve, making it easy to get into as a beginner and hard to put down as an expert. However, when class-based generic views arrived on the scene, they were met with a lukewarm reception from the community: some said they were too difficult, while others bemoaned a lack of decent documentation. But if you can power through the steep learning curve, you will see they are also incredibly powerful and produce clean, reusable code with minimal boilerplate in your views.py.
So to help you on your journey with CBVs, here are some handy tips I wish I had known when I first started learning all about them. This isn’t a tutorial, but more a set of side notes to refer to as you are learning; information which isn’t necessarily available or obvious in the official docs.
If you are just getting to grips with CBVs, the only view you need to worry about is TemplateView. Don’t try anything else until you can make a ‘hello world’ template and view it on your dev instance. This is covered in the docs. Once you can handle that, keep reading the docs and make sure you understand how to subclass a ListView and DetailView to render model data into a template.
OK, now we’re ready for the tricky stuff!
Once you have the basics down, you will find that most of your work revolves around subclassing the built-in class-based generic views and overriding one or two methods. At the start of your journey, it is not very obvious what to override to achieve your goals, so remember:
- If you need to get some extra variables into a template, use get_context_data()
- If it is a low-level permissions check on the user, you probably want dispatch()
- If you need to do a complicated database query on a DetailView, ListView etc, try get_queryset()
- If you need to pass some extra parameters to a form when constructing it via a FormView, UpdateView etc, try get_form() or get_form_kwargs()
If you haven’t heard of ccbv.co.uk, go there and bookmark it now. It is possibly the most useful reference out there for working with class-based generic views. When you are subclassing views and trying to work out which methods to override, and the official docs just don’t seem to cut it, ccbv.co.uk has your back. If it wasn’t for that site, I think we would all be that little bit grumpier about using CBVs.
CBVs cut a LOT of boilerplate code out of the process of writing forms. You should already be using ModelForms wherever you can to save effort, and there are generic class-based views available (CreateView/UpdateView) that allow you to plug in your ModelForms and reduce your boilerplate code even further. Always use this approach if you can. If your form does not map to a particular model in the database, use FormView.
If you want to put some guards on your view e.g. check if the user is logged in, check they have a certain permission etc, you will usually want to do it on the dispatch() method of the view. This is the very first method that is called in your view, so if a user shouldn’t have access then this is the place to intercept them:
from django.core.exceptions import PermissionDenied from django.views.generic import TemplateView class NoJimsView(TemplateView): template_name = 'secret.html' def dispatch(self, request, *args, **kwargs): if request.user.username == 'jim': raise PermissionDenied # HTTP 403 return super(NoJimsView, self).dispatch(request, *args, **kwargs)
Note: If you just want to restrict access to logged-in users, there is a @require_login decorator you can add around the dispatch() method. This is covered in the docs, and it may be sufficient for your purposes, but I usually end up having to modify it to handle AJAX requests nicely as well.
Once you start subclassing and overriding generic views, you will probably find yourself needing multiple inheritance. For example, perhaps you want to extend your “No Jims” policy (see above) to several other views. The best way to achieve this is to write a small Mixin and inherit from it along with the generic view. For example:
class NoJimsMixin(object): def dispatch(self, request, *args, **kwargs): if request.user.username == 'jim': raise PermissionDenied # HTTP 403 return super(NoJimsMixin, self).dispatch(request, *args, **kwargs) class NoJimsView(NoJimsMixin, TemplateView): template_name = 'secret.html' class OtherNoJimsView(NoJimsMixin, TemplateView): template_name = 'other_secret.html'
Now you have entered the world of python’s multiple inheritance and Method Resolution Order. Long story short: order is important. If you inherit from two classes that both define a foo() method, your new class will use the one from the parent class that was first in the list. So in the above example, in your NoJimsView class, if you listed TemplateView before NoJimsMixin, django would use TemplateView’s dispatch() method instead of NoJimsMixin’s. But in the above example, not only will your NoJimsMixin’s dispatch() get called first, but when you call super(NoJimsMixin, self).dispatch(), it will call TemplateView’s dispatch() method. How I wish I had known this when I was learning about CBVs!
As you browse around the docs, code and ccbv.co.uk, you will see references to Views, BaseViews and Mixins. They are largely a naming convention in the django code: a BaseView is like a View except it doesn’t have a render_to_response() method so it won’t render a template. Almost all Views inherit from a corresponding BaseView and add a render_to_response() method e.g. DetailView/BaseDetailView, UpdateView/BaseUpdateView etc. This is useful if you are subclassing from two Views, because it means you can choose which one renders the final output. It is also useful if you want to render to JSON, say in an AJAX response, and don’t need HTML rendering at all (in this case you’d need to provide your own render_to_response() method that returns a HttpResponse).
Mixin classes provide a few helper methods, but can’t be used on their own, as they are not full Views.
So in short, if you are just subclassing one thing, you will usually subclass a View. If you want to manually render a non-HTML response, you probably need a BaseView. If you are inheriting from multiple classes, you will need a combination of some or all of View, BaseView and Mixin.
A final note on AJAX
Django is not particularly good at serving AJAX requests out of the box, and once you start trying to use CBVs to do AJAX form submissions, things get quite complicated.
The docs offer some help with this in the form of a Mixin you can copy and paste into your code, which gives you JSON responses instead of HTML. You will also need to pass CSRF tokens in your POST requests, and again there is an example of how to do this in the docs.
In case you hadn’t worked it out, we at Isotoma are fans of Django’s class-based generic views. They are definitely not straightforward for newcomers, but hopefully with the help of this article and other resources (did I mention ccbv.co.uk?), it’ll be plain sailing before you know it. And once you get what they’re all about, you won’t look back.